• Online search history and Digital footprint

    Online search history is a significant component of your digital footprint, as it provides valuable insights into your interests, preferences, and activities on the internet. Essentially, it refers to the record of search queries you enter into search engines like Google, Bing, Yahoo, or others while using the internet. This record includes the terms or phrases you’ve searched for, the websites or pages you’ve clicked on from search results, and sometimes even the date and time of your searches.

    This information is collected by search engines primarily to improve their services. They use it to refine search results, enhance user experience, and personalize content recommendations. When you’re logged into a search engine’s platform, such as Google, your search history is often linked to your user account. Consequently, it becomes an integral part of your digital profile, painting a picture of your likes, dislikes, hobbies, interests, health concerns, travel plans, and more.

    Your search history can have far-reaching implications. It can influence the ads you see, the search suggestions you receive, and the content recommendations you encounter on various websites and platforms. Advertisers, in particular, leverage your search history to serve you personalized ads based on your demonstrated interests.

    However, the collection and use of search history data raise privacy concerns. Unauthorized access to your search history could reveal sensitive information, potentially leading to identity theft or invasive advertising practices. In response to these concerns, most search engines provide privacy settings that allow you to manage your search history. You can often delete specific searches or clear your entire search history as a protective measure.

    Additionally, using private browsing or incognito mode in web browsers can help prevent your searches from being saved in your search history. It’s essential to be aware of how search history data is collected, stored, and used and to take steps to protect your privacy if you have concerns about the information being gathered and shared. Moreover, in some jurisdictions, there are laws and regulations governing the collection and use of search history data, further emphasizing the importance of understanding and managing this aspect of your digital footprint.

    How to protect your search history?

    Firstly, consider using private browsing or incognito mode provided by most web browsers. This feature ensures that your search history and browsing activity aren’t saved locally on your device. It’s an effective way to conduct searches without leaving traces.

    Additionally, regularly review and delete your search history on search engines and online services. Platforms like Google offer a “My Activity” page where you can manage and clear your search and browsing history. This practice minimizes the amount of data stored over time.

    To prevent personalized ads based on your search history, adjust your ad settings. Many online platforms allow you to opt out of personalized advertising. Tools like the AdChoices program can assist in this regard.

    Consider using privacy-focused search engines such as DuckDuckGo or StartPage. These alternatives prioritize user privacy by not tracking your searches or storing your search history.

    Encrypting your internet connection with a Virtual Private Network (VPN) is another effective method. A VPN anonymizes your online activities, making it challenging for third parties to monitor your search history.

    Review and configure the privacy settings on your online accounts, especially those requiring login information. Adjusting these settings can limit data collection and storage.

    Browser extensions like Privacy Badger or uBlock Origin can help block tracking scripts and cookies. By installing these extensions, you reduce the amount of data websites can collect about your online behavior.

    Remember to log out of accounts when you’re done using them, particularly on search engines or online services. Logging out helps prevent your searches from being associated with your account.

    For sensitive or confidential searches, use secure search engines designed explicitly to protect your privacy. These search engines typically don’t store search history or use tracking mechanisms.

    Stay informed about online privacy best practices and changes in privacy policies. Knowledge about how your data is collected and used is crucial for effectively protecting your search history.

    While achieving complete online anonymity can be challenging, implementing these strategies significantly enhances your privacy and reduces the visibility of your search history to third parties.

  • Rights and Responsibilities in the digital Era

    In the online space, there are various rights and responsibilities that we need to be mindful of to ensure we lead our digital lives safely and ethically. Online rights include the copyright of our own content, for instance, when we create and share a blog post or video. This means that we have rights over this content, and others cannot use it without our permission. Data privacy is another important right, wherein online service providers and websites must respect the protection of our data and should not share it without our consent.

    Freedom of speech applies on the internet as well, but it’s crucial to understand that this doesn’t mean we can say or share anything anywhere. We also need to respect others’ rights and adhere to acceptable behavioral norms. We are responsible for the content we share and should avoid spreading disinformation or false information, as well as sharing content that harms or harasses others.

    Moderating social media and other online communities is also a significant responsibility. If you act as a moderator or administrator, you are responsible for the members of the community and the content posted. Ensuring that community rules are followed and taking action against harassment, hate speech, or unacceptable behavior is essential.

    Online data protection is something we must also pay attention to. We should not share others’ personal data without their permission and should be cautious about phishing attempts or data theft. When using or sharing others’ content, always seek permission if necessary or cite the original source to respect others’ copyright.

    Adhering to these rights and responsibilities can help create a safe and ethical online environment for both yourself and others. An informed and responsible online presence fosters the development of positive and respectful online communities that are enjoyable and secure for everyone.

  • Cyberattacks (How to recognize, mitigate and prevent them?)

    Cyberattacks can take various forms, and the types are continuously evolving with changes in internet technologies and cybersecurity measures. Below, I will outline some common types of cyberattacks and methods for recognizing, mitigating, and preventing them.

    One prevalent type of cyberattack is malware, which includes malicious software. These software programs can usually be identified using antivirus software and malware scanners. If you suspect their presence, immediately isolate the affected system from the network, remove the malware, and update the system to fix any security vulnerabilities. To prevent malware infections, it’s crucial to keep your operating system and software up to date and exercise caution when downloading from unknown sources.

    Phishing is another common form of attack, where perpetrators use fake emails or websites to attempt to steal sensitive information. Recognizing suspicious emails and websites is essential, and one should never share sensitive data in response to requests from unknown sources. Educating yourself and your employees on how to recognize phishing attempts and employing email filters can help prevent these attacks.

    Ransomware is another dangerous type of cyberattack, where attackers encrypt victims’ files and demand a ransom for decryption. If you detect ransomware, refrain from paying the ransom. Instead, isolate the affected systems from the network and attempt to restore data from backups. To prevent ransomware, regularly back up your data and keep your software updated.

    Furthermore, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks overload target servers or networks, rendering them unavailable. DDoS attacks can be thwarted using DDoS protection tools and load balancing, and for prevention, collaboration with your service provider in planning defense measures is crucial.

    Lastly, network attacks can pose a threat, where attackers attempt to infiltrate a network or disrupt its operations. Monitoring unusual network activities and implementing robust network security measures can aid in recognizing and mitigating such attacks. To prevent network security breaches, regularly update network devices, passwords, and system configurations, and consider implementing firewalls and IDS/IPS systems. Information security is paramount, and prevention is the best defense. Continuously educate yourself and your staff, utilize security software and tools, and conduct regular security audits. Additionally, developing and adhering to corporate policies and practices is vital to prevent cyberattacks.


  • The Dawn of Artificial Intelligence: Transforming the Future


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has emerged as one of the most transformative technologies of our time, reshaping industries, revolutionizing problem-solving, and propelling society into a new era of innovation and efficiency. In this article, we will explore the fascinating world of AI, its current state, its various applications, and the ethical considerations that accompany this powerful technology.

    The AI Revolution: A Brief Overview

    Artificial Intelligence refers to the development of computer systems that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence. This includes learning from experience, recognizing patterns, understanding natural language, and making informed decisions. The roots of AI can be traced back to the mid-20th century, but it is in recent years that AI has made significant strides, thanks to advancements in machine learning and deep learning.

    Types of AI

    AI can be broadly categorized into two main types:

    1. Narrow or Weak AI: This form of AI is designed to perform specific tasks or solve particular problems. Examples include virtual personal assistants like Siri and Alexa, recommendation systems on platforms like Netflix, and self-driving cars.
    2. General or Strong AI: General AI, often referred to as human-level AI, possesses human-like cognitive abilities. It can perform a wide range of tasks, learn from experience, and adapt to new situations. General AI remains a theoretical concept and is the subject of ongoing research and debate.

    Applications of AI

    AI is making inroads across various industries, revolutionizing the way we work and live. Some notable applications include:

    1. Healthcare: AI is aiding in early disease diagnosis, drug discovery, and personalized treatment plans. Medical imaging, powered by AI, is improving the accuracy of diagnostics.
    2. Finance: AI-driven algorithms are used for fraud detection, stock market prediction, and customer service chatbots, making financial services more efficient and secure.
    3. Education: AI-powered educational tools are customizing learning experiences for students, identifying areas of improvement, and providing personalized recommendations.
    4. Manufacturing: Automation through AI-driven robots and smart factories is enhancing productivity and reducing errors in manufacturing processes.
    5. Agriculture: AI is helping farmers optimize crop management, predict weather patterns, and reduce resource wastage, contributing to sustainable agriculture.
    6. Entertainment: AI-driven content recommendation algorithms are shaping our entertainment choices, while AI-generated content is gaining ground in music and art creation.

    Challenges and Ethical Considerations

    While AI holds immense potential, it also raises important ethical and societal questions:

    1. Bias and Fairness: AI systems can inherit biases present in their training data, leading to discriminatory outcomes. Ensuring fairness and reducing bias in AI algorithms is a pressing concern.
    2. Job Displacement: The automation of jobs through AI may lead to job displacement for certain industries, requiring measures for workforce adaptation and retraining.
    3. Privacy Concerns: The collection and utilization of vast amounts of data by AI systems raise privacy concerns. Striking a balance between data utilization and privacy protection is essential.
    4. Accountability: Determining liability and accountability for AI-generated decisions, especially in critical areas like healthcare and autonomous vehicles, is a legal challenge.
    5. Security: The susceptibility of AI systems to hacking and manipulation poses security risks that need to be addressed.


    Artificial Intelligence is ushering in a new era of technological progress and innovation. While its potential is immense, it also presents challenges that must be carefully navigated. As AI continues to evolve, the key lies in responsible development and ethical deployment, ensuring that AI benefits all of humanity while minimizing its potential risks. In this rapidly advancing field, it is essential for society to engage in ongoing dialogue and regulation to harness the full potential of AI for a brighter future.

    Rahma Qader,

  • Freedom of the internet

    Internet freedom is a cornerstone of the digital age, offering several key benefits to individuals and society as a whole.

    Access to Information: The internet has democratized access to information. It serves as an enormous repository of knowledge, offering unprecedented access to a vast array of resources. People can educate themselves, stay informed, and engage in intellectual pursuits like never before.

    Communication: The internet has transformed the way we communicate. It enables real-time, global connections between people, businesses, and governments. This newfound connectivity fosters innovation, international cooperation, and cross-cultural understanding.

    Freedom of Expression: Perhaps one of the most celebrated aspects of the internet is its role as a platform for free expression. Individuals can voice their opinions, create content, and participate in discussions on an almost infinite number of topics. This freedom has empowered individuals, promoted human rights, and exposed wrongdoing.

    Internet Restrictions:

    Despite its many virtues, the internet is not immune to restrictions and challenges that threaten its openness and accessibility.

    Censorship: Governments and authorities in various countries have implemented online censorship to control the flow of information. This censorship often targets political dissent, sensitive cultural issues, or content that challenges the status quo. Such actions stifle free speech and limit the diversity of viewpoints accessible to citizens.

    Blocking and Filtering: Some nations resort to technical measures like website blocking and content filtering. Entire websites, social media platforms, or specific content can be rendered inaccessible to citizens, thus curtailing their ability to explore a free and open internet.

    Surveillance and Privacy Concerns: Government surveillance programs and data collection efforts have raised significant privacy concerns. Mass surveillance can deter people from expressing their views openly, out of fear of reprisal. This surveillance infringes on privacy rights and can have a chilling effect on free expression.

    Legal and Regulatory Measures: Governments worldwide have passed laws and regulations that impact internet freedom. These measures can range from restrictions on encryption to data localization requirements. Online service providers may also be compelled to remove content deemed objectionable by authorities.

    Net Neutrality: Net neutrality is the principle that all internet traffic should be treated equally, without discrimination or preference for certain services or content. Violations of net neutrality can result in a tiered internet, where some services or websites have an unfair advantage over others.


  • The Digitalization Revolution: An Overview


    In the 21st century, the world has witnessed an unprecedented transformation driven by the rapid advancement of technology. At the forefront of this transformation is digitalization, a process that involves the integration of digital technologies into various aspects of human life, from business and education to healthcare and entertainment. Digitalization is more than just the adoption of new tools; it represents a fundamental shift in the way we live, work, and interact. This article explores the concept of digitalization, its impact on different sectors, and the opportunities and challenges it presents.

    Understanding Digitalization

    Digitalization refers to the conversion of analog information into digital format, making it possible to store, manipulate, and transmit data electronically. This process involves the use of computers, software, and communication technologies to streamline and enhance various processes. Unlike digitization, which simply involves the conversion of information, digitalization involves the broader integration of digital technologies to create new value and efficiencies.

    Key Aspects of Digitalization

    1. Data Revolution: One of the most significant outcomes of digitalization is the explosion of data. Every digital interaction generates data, and businesses and institutions are harnessing this data to gain insights into consumer behavior, optimize operations, and drive innovation.
    2. Automation and Artificial Intelligence (AI): Digitalization has led to the automation of many tasks and processes, freeing up human resources for more creative and strategic roles. AI technologies, including machine learning and neural networks, have enabled computers to perform tasks that once required human intelligence, such as language translation, image recognition, and even decision-making.
    3. Connectivity and IoT: The Internet of Things (IoT) has enabled the interconnection of devices and systems, allowing them to share data and work together seamlessly. This interconnectedness has paved the way for smart homes, smart cities, and industrial applications that optimize resource usage and improve efficiency.
    4. E-Commerce and Digital Services: Digitalization has revolutionized commerce by enabling online shopping and digital payment systems. Businesses can now reach a global audience without physical storefronts, and consumers can access products and services from the comfort of their homes.
    5. Education and E-Learning: The digitalization of education has led to e-learning platforms, online courses, and digital resources that provide learners with flexible and personalized learning experiences.
    6. Healthcare Transformation: Digital health technologies have improved patient care, diagnostics, and treatment. Electronic health records, telemedicine, and wearable devices are just a few examples of how digitalization has impacted the healthcare sector.

    Impact on Various Sectors

    1. Business: Digitalization has disrupted traditional business models, forcing companies to adapt or risk obsolescence. Data analytics and digital marketing have become essential tools for understanding customer preferences and staying competitive.
    2. Workforce: Automation has transformed industries, with routine tasks being automated and new job roles emerging in fields like data science, AI development, and cybersecurity.
    3. Society: The digital divide, which refers to the gap between those who have access to digital technologies and those who do not, has become a pressing issue. Bridging this gap is crucial to ensure equal access to opportunities and information.
    4. Environment: While digitalization offers potential environmental benefits, such as energy efficiency through smart grids, it also contributes to electronic waste and energy consumption related to data centers.

    Opportunities and Challenges


    1. Innovation: Digitalization opens the door to continuous innovation across industries, allowing for the development of new products, services, and solutions.
    2. Efficiency: Automation and digital processes streamline operations, reducing costs and increasing efficiency.
    3. Global Connectivity: Digitalization facilitates global communication and collaboration, transcending geographical boundaries.


    1. Security and Privacy: The digitization of sensitive information raises concerns about data breaches, cyberattacks, and the protection of individual privacy.
    2. Job Displacement: Automation could lead to job displacement in certain sectors, requiring a focus on reskilling and upskilling the workforce.
    3. Digital Divide: Unequal access to technology can exacerbate social and economic inequalities.


    Digitalization is an ongoing transformation that continues to reshape the world in profound ways. As society navigates this digital revolution, it’s important to harness the opportunities while addressing the challenges. By fostering inclusivity, investing in education, and prioritizing ethical considerations, we can ensure that digitalization benefits all of humanity and leads to a more connected, efficient, and innovative future.

    Rahma Qader,

  • Artificial Intelligence and Data Privacy

    The proliferation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) raises significant concerns regarding data privacy, as AI systems typically use and process large amounts of data. Here you can read some important data privacy concerns that may arise:

    • Protection of personal data: AI systems often utilize data containing personal information, such as names, addresses, birth dates, or identifiers. Safeguarding data and encrypting personal information are of prior importance to prevent abuses, data breaches, or infringements of privacy rights.

    • Data security: Ensuring secure storage and transmission of data used by AI systems is essential. Protection against unauthorized access to data, phishing attacks, or other cybersecurity threats is crucial.

    • Transparency and explainability of decisions: AI systems often make complex decisions, but their functioning and the basis of their decisions are not always transparent. This lack of transparency raises concerns among users and regulatory authorities. Data controllers and developers need to strive to provide explanations regarding the data underlying the decisions made by AI systems.

    • Discrimination and bias: AI systems can exhibit biases towards certain groups or individuals if the system is trained on data containing discriminatory patterns. This can exacerbate social injustices and inequalities. Ensuring data diversity and eliminating discrimination in AI systems are important tasks.

    • Use and sharing of data: Data collected for AI systems can be used for various purposes, raising concerns about unauthorized use or misuse of data. Users need to be aware of what data is being collected about them and how it is being utilized.

    • Anonymity of personal data: AI systems are capable of linking and analyzing anonymous data to extract identifiable information. This raises questions about the anonymity of data, as seemingly anonymous data can still be re-identified.

    Addressing these concerns requires robust data protection and security regulations, ethical guidelines, and compliance frameworks in the implementation of AI. Cooperation and transparency between regulatory authorities and technology companies can help strike a balance between development and data privacy. The opaqueness of AI systems’ functioning and decisions is a cause for concern among users, stakeholders, and regulatory authorities. Lack of transparency diminishes people’s trust in AI systems and poses challenges in determining accountability for system-related outcomes.

    Transparency and explain-ability of decisions

    AI systems often employ complex algorithms and machine learning methods to perform tasks. These algorithms are based on data previously presented to the system. AI systems learn from the data and adapt to make decisions or perform tasks. However, algorithms are typically complex and non-linear, making it difficult to precisely understand how they arrive at a particular answer or decision. This issue can be particularly critical when AI systems make important decisions that can impact people’s lives or rights. For example, AI systems can make decisions in job selection processes, court judgments, credit ratings, or insurance services. The individuals affected by such decisions have the right to know what data was used to make the decisions and what logic or algorithm led to the particular outcome. The lack of transparency not only poses challenges for the affected individuals but also for regulatory authorities and responsible technology companies. The lack of transparency makes it difficult to determine system accountability and identify abuses or illegal activities. Furthermore, transparency contributes to verifying the non-discriminatory nature of AI systems and correcting biases or distortions. To improve transparency and explain-ability of decisions, ongoing research and development are being conducted. For example, interpretable machine learning methods attempt to explain the algorithms’ decisions and the decision-making process. However, there are still many open questions in this field, and developers and regulators need to collaborate to promote transparency and explain-ability when using AI systems.


  • Mawlid (Birthday)

    Dancing, henna, and blessing the saints.. What do you know about popular birthdays in Egypt?

    Some may think that what the term “mawlid” reflects is the celebration of a person’s birthday as it appears at first glance from its lexical term, but the matter is not necessarily limited to that, as the main purpose of the moulid was to increase social cohesion by gathering people around a specific idea and place.

    The Egyptians are famous for their distinctive and unique custom, which is holding popular birthdays on a regular basis to celebrate religious occasions, Islamic or Christian, whether holidays or the day of the birth or death of one of the righteous saints.

    The history of Egypt, throughout its various eras, knew a number of religious ceremonies that melted into the fabric of society, and were associated with manifestations of special rituals that infiltrated the popular heritage in the culture of the Egyptians, and were associated with offering vows and offerings to certain religious symbols.

    From the Pharaohs to the Fatimids

    Many historical references and literary studies indicate that the popular celebrations of the birthdays of saints and saints are a historical extension of what the ancient Egyptians used to do in their celebrations of the birthdays of the pharaohs and gods, as one of its most important features was the reverence for the one who was celebrated.

    Among the most important features that are considered inherited in birthdays from ancient times, and many of them are derived from the days of the Pharaohs, henna, dancing, blessing the saints, and lighting candles.

    Throughout history, birthdays provided an opportunity for Egyptians of all levels and backgrounds to meet, and a place where city dwellers gather with village and rural residents of all sects and ages, to listen to chanting and supplication, and to celebrate and commemorate the birth.

    With the entry of Islam into Egypt in the year 642 AD, the culture of religious celebrations became devoid of reverence for people, and was represented in specific religious occasions, such as the symbolic celebration of the month of Ramadan, Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. The situation continued in this case until the Fatimids took over the rule of Egypt and established their rule there in the year 969 AD, so they introduced the culture of popular and religious celebrations, among which was the celebration of God’s saints, “the birthdays”, and feasts that were held out of propaganda for the Fatimid state and its rulers.

    The birthdays in Egypt are divided into more than one category, foremost of which are public religious events such as the birth of the Prophet of Islam Muhammad, may God bless him and grant him peace, the celebration of the first of the Hijri year, the night of the Isra’ and Mi’raj, the night of the middle of Sha’ban, the Virgin Mary, the martyr Margis, and Saint Demiana.

    Then comes the birthdays of saints, such as “the birthday of Al-Hussein, Mrs. Zainab, and the birthdays of the founders and sheikhs of the Sufi orders.”

    Thousands of births from the Delta to Upper Egypt

    Some may think that what the term “mawlid” reflects is the celebration of a person’s birthday as it appears at first glance from its lexical expression, but its axis is related to the glorification of a religious figure and the commemoration of it, regardless of observing a specific calendar that accurately determines his birth.

    The goal of the birthday is usually to promote belief in the person of the saint or saint, but the matter is not necessarily limited to that, as the main goal of the birthday was also to increase social cohesion by gathering people around a specific idea and place.

    According to several studies, there is no specific number of birthdays in Egypt, while the Egyptian Association for Popular Traditions says that the number of Islamic and Christian birthdays is about 2,850, attended by about 40 million people annually.

    The birthdays are spread in all the governorates of Egypt from the Delta to Upper Egypt, Cairo and Alexandria, and the Islamic and Christian birthdays are similar, as these birthdays spread in the cities, centers and villages of Egypt from all the governorates without exception.

    shrines and processions

    Whether the birthday is Christian or Islamic, there are almost constant rituals in the celebrations, which is visiting the shrine, walking in a large procession carrying the flags of the Sufi orders, or meeting priests and deacons in Christian processions.

    As for the practices themselves that express the contents of the birthdays, they are evident in visits to shrines and evocation of songs and narrations that express the most important stations in the life of the saints, and some of the religious texts.

    Islamic birthdays are distinguished by the dhikr circles, in which the devotees gather and form a circle or several circles behind each other, with the sheikh of the method or the leader of the dhikr circle in the middle, and shake their bodies, in a semi-circular movement, and chant the word “God” collectively.

    Music is used in dhikr, and folk songs are recited, consisting of poetic pieces that are memorized through oral narration and sung to the accompaniment of music.

    The births of Egyptian Christians were known in the Egyptian popular culture because they are closely linked to the stories of saints and martyrs among Christians who fell victim to campaigns of persecution in the era of Emperor Diocletian. Celebrations and prayers are held for them that honor their lives, sanctify them, and ask for intercession from them.

    Rahma Qader,

  • Importance of Copyright in the digital era

    Respecting copyright is extremely important from the perspective of digital literacy as it has an impact on the well-being of creators, content owners, and society as a whole. Adhering to copyright laws in the digital environment not only signifies a legal obligation but also entails upholding ethical principles.

    For creators and content owners, respecting copyright enables them to earn income from their artistic work. It provides motivation for further creativity and the creation of new works, knowing that their work is protected by copyright. This fosters innovation and contributes to the development of the cultural economy.

    Copyright protection also safeguards against the unauthorized use of creators’ intellectual products. In the digital environment, copying, distributing, and modifying content has become easier, making it crucial to respect the rights of creators and content owners and refrain from engaging in unlawful actions. Unauthorized use diminishes creators’ motivation and opportunities, and has a detrimental impact on the economic sustainability of content creation industries.

    Respecting copyright promotes the availability of quality content and sources in the digital space. When creators and content owners are confident that their work is being respected, they are more willing to share their content and sources. This facilitates reliable information flow, creative expression, and the preservation of high-quality content in the digital environment.

    Therefore, respecting copyright serves not only the interests of creators but also benefits society as a whole. Respect and commitment to copyright help sustain the economic viability of creative communities, promote cultural diversity, and encourage innovation in the digital environment.

    In conclusion, respecting copyright is a fundamental element of digital literacy that contributes to supporting artists and creators, fostering innovation, protecting against unauthorized use, and promoting quality content in the digital environment. This awareness is crucial for everyone to operate responsibly and ethically in the digital society and contribute to the development of a sustainable digital culture.


  • Visit (Zar)

      is a group of similar folk rituals, with special dances and special phrases, accompanied by certain loud beats on tambourines and the release of incense. Al-Zar is an Arabic word probably borrowed from the Amharic language , and some researchers believe that the origin of the word Al-Zar is Arabic, and it is from the bad luck visitor. This group of similar folk rituals works to expel  the goblins that reincarnate some people, and therefore the Zar performs a therapeutic function for its believers.

    It seems that the common beliefs in expelling the demons of the dice or paradise have passed from Abyssinia  to the Islamic world. It is likely that the rituals related to the dice in Egypt were transferred to it in the 19th century, because its Amharic name “dice” and its special characteristics for expelling orcs and evoking it are clear evidence for researchers that its origin is from northern Abyssinia . It is customary for these rituals of expelling orcs to be performed by a woman, who is the sheikha or the fortune-teller, and among the common people of Egypt, “Al-Kadiyah”. Their treatment of orcs differs according to the place from which they came. This is because they differentiate between the orcs of Egypt and the orcs of Upper Egypt and Sudan, and sometimes they also differentiate between the beliefs and occupations of the goblins . Research has been published in Cairo on vilification of the zar, and psychological, social and popular studies are studying the things of this ritual. 

    Zar history and belief
    Zar is originally  a pagan ritual of primitive African tribes. It moved from Abyssinia to Sudan and from there to Egypt in  1870 AD , and from Egypt to the rest  of the Arab countries. It is believed that invoking the spirits of ancestors, masters, and sheikhs, and fulfilling their requests or reincarnating their spirits , may lead to the healing of patients who possess them. Jinn.


    In Egypt

    After the zar moved from Abyssinia to Egypt, it turned over time into a ceremonial ritual to expel “the jinn and goblins”, which includes performing arts. And the lady has to sit on a chair in the middle of the room, and any animal is slaughtered on her head to get close to the masters, and a group of women and men revolve around her in a specific dance accompanied by beating on tambourines and drums and spreading incense, and this ritual continues until one of the patients or the clothes of the jinn falls on The earth begins to scream and ache, and most of those who attend these sessions are women, and at the present time such rituals are still performed in Egypt, specifically in villages and popular areas such as Al-Darb Al-Ahmar, Al-Ghouria, Al-Sayeda Zeinab, and Al-Qanater Al-Khairiya.

    Rahma Qader,

  • Comparison of Cultural Heritage Management in Turkey and Egypt

    Turkey and Egypt have affluent cultural heritage properties which are
    seen as essential elements of the tourism supply for both countries. The
    management approach of nations for these properties changes according
    to many things, i.e. cultural background, political view, prosperity level.
    Notwithstanding, it is possible to make comparisons of two countries’
    approach with the help of some basic factors. In this study, the
    comparison of cultural heritage management in Turkey and Egypt is presented according to various criteria indicating the legal, organizational,
    and governance differences and similarities.

    Current situation of the world heritage properties in both countries;
    although Egypt signed on the world heritage convention for the protection
    of cultural and natural sites 10 years before Turkey did, it seems that
    Turkey is going in a more progressive way concerning the WHL.
    As it appears from the comparative study, the ICOMOS National
    Committee in Egypt is still under construction, although ICOMOS Turkey
    National Committee was established in 1974 and it operates within the
    framework of international practices. Regarding the world heritage list
    and the tentative list in both countries, many of properties are
    archaeological sites, although both countries have many exceptional natural and mixed sites that could potentially be inscribed in the world
    heritage list.
    Egypt has very rich cultural and natural heritage sites but only 7
    heritage sites are inscribed in WHL which is unparalleled with the
    richness of Egypt. On the other hand, Turkey has 17 heritage sites
    inscribed in UNESCO list. Furthermore, the number of Turkish heritage
    sites inscribed in WHL is increasing each year, the last Turkish heritage
    site was inscribed in 2017, while the last Egyptian heritage site was
    included in WHL in 2005, and it seems that Turkey is actively working
    more than Egypt. With regard to the year of the inscription, it is obvious
    that five of Egyptian heritage sites inscribed in 1979 and from this year till
    2005 Egypt did not submit nomination proposals for any property. In
    other words, Egypt seems to lose its motivation to inscribe its heritage
    properties to WHS since 2005.
    Additionally, Turkey is trying to prepare the nominated sites to meet the criteria for inscription with continuous, stable and, more progressive ways.
    Regarding the evaluation of current situation in cultural heritage
    sites in Turkey and Egypt; it is clearly shown that the cultural heritage
    sites in both countries are suffering from continuous threats. These threats
    can be divided into two main categories. Firstly, general threats which are
    facing all sites and related to the national system of WHS management.
    Secondly, the threats which are related to particular heritage sites. These
    threats can be categorized into high risky threats as management
    deficiencies, large-scale development projects and others might be called
    common threats like; shortage in the legal framework, looting, lack of
    conservation, threats to authenticity, environmental pressure,
    unrestrained visitation, lack of financial and human resources. Similarities
    about the threats on the cultural heritage sites are observed in both
    Management plan approach; the findings have clarified that there is
    a lack of management plan for heritage sites in both countries. In fact, the
    situation in Egypt is worse than Turkey as most of the existing
    management plans are only “papers plans” without effective actions and
    sometimes the plans do not follow the time frame so it results in many
    delays in implementation. It is obvious that there is a lack in visitor
    management programs and visitor centers in both countries, especially for
    the heritage sites that are not included in UNESCO list. Hence, there is a
    necessity for both countries to conduct new policies and approaches
    particularly for visitor and resource management.  Additionally, it is observed that there is a lack of local community
    involvement in heritage management in Egypt. Some development
    projects conducted in the heritage areas has not taken the opinions of local
    community into the consideration. As a result, conflicts between
    authorities and the local communities occur in Egypt. On the contrary,
    UNESCO appreciated the Turkish efforts to raise the local community
    participation in management and development plans.
    In terms of financial management of the heritages sites, it seems
    that the situation is almost the same for both countries. Mainly, the central
    governments are providing funds to develop projects. However, the funds
    are limited in both countries. Egypt is eager to allocate limited funds to
    urgent sites that need restoration and renovation whereas in Turkey it is
    the various governmental bodies and to some extent the sponsors who
    support the heritage sites.
    Finally, the comparative study revealed that there is an absence of
    collaboration among stakeholders and this can affect the heritage sites
    negatively. Moreover, there is no integration between the city plans and
    the conservation plans, so this can lead to inefficiencies in creating and
    pursuing the monitoring systems of these sites in both countries.

    Rahma Qader,

  • Cookies in general

    Cookies are a widespread method on the internet for storing and utilizing information. Cookies are small text files that websites place on your browser device. When you visit a website, cookies can be used to gather information about your activities and preferences.

    Cookies can be used for various purposes. Some of them include:

    1.  Session cookies: These cookies store temporary information, such as data about actions performed on the website or inputted information. Session cookies are usually automatically deleted when you close the browser.


    2.  Persistent cookies: These cookies remain on your device for a longer period, even after you close the browser. They can, for example, remember login information or preferences.


    3.  Third-party cookies: Some websites can use cookies from external providers, such as advertising networks or social media platforms. These cookies can track your browsing habits across multiple websites to display personalized advertisements or content.

    Cookies can be useful because they allow websites to customize the experience, remember your settings and history, and improve browsing efficiency. However, the data collection and tracking associated with cookies can raise concerns for users.

    It’s important to note that cookies only store limited information and are not capable of capturing personal data like names or email addresses unless you provide this information through a form submission.

    If you are concerned about the use of cookies, most browsers provide options to manage and delete cookies. Generally, you can modify cookie acceptance, disable them, or delete existing cookies through your browser settings. Additionally, cookies enable the storage of shopping carts and purchase data, making it easier for you to shop and revisit a website in the future.

    However, the use of cookies also raises some privacy issues. Since cookies can track your browsing habits and preferences, in some cases, this data can be shared with third parties, such as for advertising purposes. This can sometimes raise concerns for users as their online activities are being tracked, and personalized advertisements are displayed to them.

    To protect your privacy, it’s important to understand what types of cookies a website uses and how they handle data. Websites generally provide privacy policies or cookie guidelines that offer detailed information about the data they collect and how they use it.

    If you’re concerned about cookie tracking or data privacy, many browsers offer settings that allow you to manage cookies. For example, you can disable or limit third-party cookies and delete existing cookies from your browser. It’s worth reviewing your browser settings and customizing them based on the benefits and privacy considerations.


  • Culture Heritage Management in Turkey and Egypt #1

    In this article, we shall emphasize both the Turkish and Egyptian cultural heritages. The distinctions between them will be highlighted in next week’s article.

        Land of Turkey having hosted many civilizations, like Hattis, Troy, Hittites, Urartians, Lydians, Lycians, Pergamon, combines heritage roots of Europe and Asia. Turkey is, thus, noted by some researchers as being a “melting pot” of various cultures where classical culture was shaped. Turkey has a rich world heritage list. It contains seventeen WHS fifteen of which are cultural and two are mixed properties of both cultural and natural values. The number of these sites will probably increase because Turkish heritage inventory has not completed yet, as many valuable heritage sites are being discovered almost every day. Hence, to preserve this rich Turkish cultural heritage and to ensure its sustainability many efforts should be made. The Ministry of Culture and Tourism is the main body responsible for preparing and processing the WHS with some international assistance.

    Turkey has some cases that are considered among the best practices for preserving cultural heritage. In 2012, UNESCO announced on its official website that Historic Areas of Istanbul as one of the best practices in terms of conservation, local community, boundaries, sustainable development tourism and interpretation as well as other different aspects ( On the other hand, Turkey has also some issues to resolve regarding CHM. One critique about CHM is that sites were identified, nominated, and inscribed to the World Heritage List with no meaningful consultation of local communities and other stakeholders. The cultural heritage sites in Turkey seem to suffer from significant challenges even after inscription to UNESCO list. These challenges result from mainly lack of professional management and misuse of lands which could be recognized in most of the other developing countries as well. UNESCO and Turkey are working together to create effective tools and stronger policies for the sustainable development of historic Additionally, Turkey has a distinctive blend of natural and cultural attraction as well as, legislative framework, which all require effective management. Conservation efforts have been undertaken with legislation that was strict but weakly enforced and ill-equipped with implementation tools, and a centralized administrative. There is an also shortage in the planning process as it does not include the conservation policies, and this makes a gap in the Turkish conservation system. Turkey has performed many actions to realize its main goal to implement heritage management policies in the context of the World Heritage Convention. In 2004, Turkish authorities adopted the state’s heritage conservation legislation to bring Turkey’s heritage management in line with international standards to protect all listed heritage sites in Turkey. Turkish local councils on the conservation of the cultural heritage are controlling and monitoring all alterations in cultural heritage sites such as excavation works, development projects, construction, and demolition. Mostly the museums hold the management of archaeological sites in Turkey. The General Directorate of Waqf is responsible for preserving many Islamic monuments. Furthermore, the fountains, city walls and water channels are managed by the municipalities. City councils also allocate a specific amount of their budget for improving the historical properties (ICOMOS Turkey). On the other hand, due to many heritage sites in Turkey, it becomes so critical for the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to carry out renovation and conservation plans at these sites (ICOMOS Turkey). Indeed, Turkey does not give any permission to the private sector to work at archaeological sites; it only gives the authority to the universities and museums to undertake all restoration missions and operations at these sites. Despite this fact, Turkey is working on the development of public and civil renovation projects to maintain the characteristic features of sites that have lost their original functions, through initiatives from academic research as well as practical applications (UNESCO, 2016). As the inventory of Turkish heritage properties is not finished yet, the demolition risk of unregistered heritage properties is also high (ICOMOS Turkey).

     Cultural Heritage Management in Egypt.

          Egypt is considered as one of the richest countries in the world regarding the number of heritage sites (Hang & Kong, 2008). Egypt’s Cultural Heritage has become more valuable because of its role in creating an image that is based on Pharaonic identity, while promoting the country as a tourism destination. It essentially depends on the unique and diversified blend of the cultural heritage sites such as, the pyramids, the temples in Luxor and Aswan, the mosques and churches in Cairo and many other treasures. Although Egypt is considered as an ideal case of a tourism destination which depends mainly on unique historical attractions, these attractions are facing many threats due to the urban development and tourism activities. Unfortunately, Egypt has difficulties in preserving its heritage (Hang & Kong, 2008; Cooper & Helmy, 2010). Cultural management practices of Egypt date back to the mid-19th century when the traditional approach was executed with little indication of a proper system. Egypt has started to improve the application of CHM system in their heritage sites relying on sustainability principles for a few decades. Egypt has faced severe social and political conditions since 2011 and many heritage sites were looted and destroyed due to the absence of a system for management and insufficient restoration and maintenance of cultural heritage sites. It is obvious that Egypt has serious problems at the cultural heritage landscape sites caused by the lack of comprehensive vision for management and conservation. The Supreme Council of Antiquities became the first responsible authority in Egypt – under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture – for the management and conservation of archeological sites. This Council has various responsibilities such as conservation and renewal work, research and scientific studies, the management and monitoring all the cultural heritage sites (Cooper & Helmy, 2010). However, there are other administrative organs and bodies concerned with cultural heritage and cultural landscapes in Egypt and they are working to assist the Supreme Council of Antiquities, each one in its fields. Many of the archaeological sites, including the WHS like Giza pyramids and Saqqarah, are suffering from the lack of an integrated program of site management. This inadequacy can cause negative impacts for the conservation of the monuments as well as the tourist experience. Besides, Egypt confronts difficulties to preserve these sites because of its unhealthy financial situation. The government can hardly allocate sufficient budget for these treasures’ upkeep (Hang & Kong, 2008). Therefore, many international associations are supporting numerous of heritage sites in Egypt financially, for restoration, conservation, and technical support. In the last five decades, a lot of attempts have been made to ameliorate the cultural heritage sites and their facilities. Accordingly, many changes have been undertaken in legislation framework and in the planning process. Despite all the efforts of authorities, many obstacles – such as economic, social, technical, and political problems- still stand which make the implementation a hard work (Abada, 2008). Generally, the governmental bodies in Egypt give more attention to the world cultural heritage sites in UNESCO list and they disregard other cultural heritage sites which are not registered in the list.

    Rahma Qader,

  • Effective Applications and Measures for Protecting Personal Data in the Online World

    • Password: This is a password manager application that helps in creating and storing strong, unique passwords for various online accounts. It helps prevent the use of easily hackable passwords or using the same password across multiple platforms.

    • Signal: This is an encrypted messaging application that provides end-to-end encryption for chats and calls. This means that communication can only be read by the intended users, and no one else can access it.

    • ProtonMail: This is an end-to-end encrypted email service that allows users to securely send and receive emails. The service essentially provides protection for data privacy and confidentiality.

    • Tor Browser: The Tor browser helps in anonymous browsing on the internet, hiding your IP address and online activity traces. This allows you to be less traceable based on your browsing habits.

    • DuckDuckGo: This is a privacy-focused search engine that does not track users’ search activities or store their data. It helps minimize your online profile and search history.

    • ExpressVPN: This is a reliable Virtual Private Network (VPN) service that encrypts your internet connection and allows you to prevent your ISP or other third parties from tracking your online activities. It helps protect your internet traffic.

    • LastPass: This is another popular password manager application that helps in generating and storing strong passwords. It supports multi-factor authentication and securely synchronizes data across different devices.

    In addition to using these applications, it is important to follow general security practices, such as

    1- Regularly update software and applications: The latest versions often include fixes and security updates that protect against vulnerabilities and attacks

    2- Use strong and unique passwords: Use strong passwords for every online account, including lowercase and uppercase letters, numbers, and special characters. Avoid using the same password across multiple platforms, and it’s important to use a different password for each account.

    3- Enable multi-factor authentication: Multi-factor authentication (MFA) provides an extra layer of protection for your accounts. It usually requires an additional authentication method, such as a one-time code generated by your mobile app, in addition to the password.

    4- Be cautious with online data sharing: Think carefully about the personal information you share online. Be cautious about the information you share on social media platforms, and be vigilant with links and files from unknown sources.

    5- Check app permissions: When downloading an app, read the permissions it requests. If an app asks for excessive personal data access that is not necessary for its functionality, it may be suspicious.

    6- Use ad blockers and browser extensions: AdBlocker applications help block ads and potentially malicious content. Additionally, browser extensions can provide additional privacy features and block online tracking.

    7- These measures and applications can help protect people’s personal data in the online space. However, it’s important to stay informed about the latest data privacy trends and developments to ensure the best protection for yourself.


  • Data privacy and protection of personal information

    Data privacy and protection of personal information are of utmost importance in the information society, where the use of digital technologies and the internet has become a constant presence in people’s lives.


    Personal data can come from various sources, including online activities, mobile applications, smart devices, and social media. However, online platforms and services often collect and use data without fully informing users or obtaining their prior consent.


    The misuse of data and the potential for security breaches can have various consequences, such as the unauthorized use of personal information, identity theft, online harassment, personal safety risks, phishing, and abuses related to advertising. Due to the risks of data misuse, there is an increasing need for effective data protection measures and tools that allow users to protect and control their personal data.


    To address data privacy and protection concerns, many countries and regions have introduced legal frameworks and regulatory measures, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in the European Union, which regulate data protection practices and data privacy rights. The aim of such measures is to protect users’ personal data, promote secure and responsible handling of personal data, and respect users’ privacy rights in the online space.

    However, data protection and privacy also depend on the awareness and responsibility of users, not just the regulation of legal frameworks.


    It is important for individuals to be aware of what data they share on online platforms and with whom they share it. They should consider what information they share and the consequences if others can see it. Users should also pay attention to the settings of online platforms and ensure that they only share their data with those they want to.


    Therefore, data protection and privacy depend not only on compliance with legal frameworks but also on the awareness and responsibility of users. It is important for individuals to know that their online activities leave a trace on the internet and that protecting their data and preserving their privacy online is just as important as in the offline world.



    First off, what is cultural heritage management?

    Cultural Heritage Management Concepts (CHM) There is a growing interest in the management of cultural heritage properties which has increased especially after UNESCO issued the guidelines of heritage management. The concept of Cultural Heritage Management is handled in several disciplines, which have different interest areas related to cultural and archaeological resources such as archaeological heritage management, historical buildings and sites managing or monitoring and evaluation of historical sites (UNESCO), all providing different perspectives and definitions about CHM. The management studies on heritage sites began in the 1970s and the concept was first used by The ICOMOS International Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management (ICAHM). In 1972, UNESCO World Heritage Convention established the “World Heritage Committee”, which aims to preserve the cultural and natural heritage worldwide with responsibility of determining the World Heritage. In literature, the Advances in Hospitality and Tourism Research, discipline dealing with cultural sites management is also known as Cultural Resources Management (CRM). For instance, in the Unites States, much of historic preservation is carried out in a framework of 1999; CRM which contains different concepts such as conservation, restoration, safeguarding, history, architecture and preservation of archaeological sites. Many changes have occurred in CHM since 1993. Firstly, ICOMOS issued its guideline, as well as UNESCO which started writing the Guidelines for the Management of World Cultural Heritage Sites, that was modified respectively in 1993 and 1998. In the 2000s, the CHM approach was modified globally, and many European projects applied it. Additionally, in the same decade, the sustainability concept became a significant principle for conserving heritage sites. The World Heritage concept becomes substantial in the context of CHM approach as it gives priority to managing heritage sites. Recently, the cultural heritage management approaches have changed. They have been transformed from “the conventional approach” which gives more attention to the resource itself, to “the human approach”, which gives attention to the resource and the visitor to achieve the required balance regarding the quality of the visitor experience (Rowe, 2009), while following the preservation practices and principles at the heritage property (Figure 1). Moreover, the local community participation in heritage management and ensuring the benefits for them becomes one of the most important principles in managing cultural heritage. The outstanding universal value of heritage becomes the indicator of choosing the cultural heritage to be in the World Heritage List and this gives priority for management. Preservation of cultural heritage can increase the awareness of values, cultural identity, and support sustainability in the world of globalization. Cultural heritage management is a complicated and changeable process, and it should be modified according to the changes in the political, economic, and physical settings.


     In recent years, cultural heritage management in Turkey and Egypt is facing various problems, i.e., the poor condition of many heritage properties due to development pressures, tourism, and agricultural growth. Even though Turkey and Egypt have an appropriate legislative context theoretically, the governments have many challenges- regarding financial resources, staff, and skills – to implement it. It becomes so difficult to understand the status of heritage in one country without recognizing the background of this country such as the economic and political situation and its cultural policies. These elements have impressive impacts on the business and management environment (Zan, 2014). CHM mainly concerns the legal and administrative requirements. In respect to safeguarding whether Turkey and Egypt are managing these sites effectively, it is essential, firstly to evaluate the current situation and to reveal the troubles that these sites have. Two main categories of troubles could be noted. The general problems in all cultural heritage sites in both countries are often related to the national system of WHS management as well as the problems which are related particularly to the heritage sites themselves.

    Rahma Qader.

  • Protection Of Human Rights

              The protection of human rights is important because human rights are fundamental rights and freedoms that belong to every person simply because we are human beings. Human rights have become a crucial tool for achieving freedom, equality, and justice throughout history. The protection of human rights ensures that every person has the right to dignity, freedom of expression, equality, legal protection, fair treatment, and work. The protection of human rights helps prevent exploitation, discrimination, violence, and abuse and contributes to the preservation of human dignity and equality.

    The right to privacy is one of the human rights that ensures that every person has the right to respect for their private life. This means that every person has the right to protect their own life, family life, place of residence, communication, and personal data, therefore, the protection of human rights is a fundamental condition of human existence and the most important way to respect human dignity . Our project is most closely related to the third-generation right, the right to privacy. When third-generation human rights were, the internet did not yet  exist. The spread of the internet does not require a substantive review of the right to privacy but necessitates a reconsideration of legal and moral responsibility issues related to the mode of personal communication and the technical implementation of communication.

    Several factors result in the uniqueness of the internet in this regard. One such factor is the interactivity of internet communication, which can accumulate an enormous amount of personal information. Most of the information is generated by users themselves, either in online conversations, through the use of satellite location (GPS) , or simply by using internet-based phones. These activities leave a trail (cookie) that is accessible to others. However, users are in a decision-making position. They can decide whether to reveal their identity, give their consent to certain activities, or simply visit a website or not.

    Another feature lies in the increasing capacity of data traffic, which makes new services and further communication methods available. Internet-based television, for example, allows the mapping of the television habits of a particular subscriber, so that targeted advertising can reach them at a precisely determined time. The open nature of the internet and the variety of applications related to its use are also special factors. With these, photos, resumes, and communication channels become easily accessible and replicable, and the channels of communication cannot provide complete security. The prevention and sanctioning of legal violations are made impossible by the global nature of the network. Data traffic transcends borders and redefines national sovereignty. The role of the press as an information medium is increasingly taken over by internet service providers, website operators, and maintainers who are in a position to control the flow of information. This places their responsibility at the forefront of violating the right to privacy in cases such as personal communication or the disclosure of personal data to others. However, traditional tools for regulating the press do not work to manage the risks caused by the nature of the internet.

    The protection of the internet and privacy (e-privacy) will play an increasingly important role in the coming decades in terms of protecting personal data and information, as well as personal communication.


  • El-Naddaha (The Caller)

     En-Naddāha  (Egyptian Arabic: النداهة “ the caller “) is an Egyptian legend of a naiad-like female spirit who calls men to the Nile, most likely to their death or disappearance. It is specially well known in rural Egypt, both within Lower and Upper Egypt, along the Nile and the Nile’s water canals, the agricultural-based area of Egypt.

    You want to know who I am?

         They think I am just a myth, but I am as real as the moon in the night sky. I see them but they cannot see me; they can only hear my silvery voice, but I will let you know how I look like anyway. My skin is as white as ice. Pale, you could say. My eyes are as blue as the ocean. My lashes are long, and my hair is golden. I am always dressed in a silk white dress. I am always barefoot. I live by the Nile River in El Minya, in Upper Egypt, where more than 100,000 people live. I study their every move, the exact posture of their bodies and memorize their names by heart so I can call for them at night as I lay there by the Nile River in the starry night.

    I wonder: which name will roll of my tongue first, which name will I utter for the night when the water is calm as mill pond and clear as crystal? The river is like a silver ribbon, laid across the land. The rampaging river moves swiftly, stealing everything in its path. Do I call on Abd El Haleem, tonight? Or do I wait? He is a man in his early 30s. He dark skinned and has green eyes. He has no kids. He only lives with his parents who are quite old, and he supposedly takes care of them. If I call for him, who will take care of these old souls? Who would check on them or find out when they are dead?

     People think I’m a villain, but I am a heroin. I only call on corrupted people even when nobody know that they are. People think I call on men because I’m lonely, but I am only trying to use my voice to make a change in the world. How about his friend Abd El Samiee? Abd El Samei’s existence is useless. He adds nothing to himself or to the world around him, but he causes no harm. So, what’s the point of calling on him?

    I keep picturing corpses floating on the surface/ I do not kill them I only lure them with my enchanting voice, and I might sometimes suck away their souls. I am not a murderer I am only a woman in need of a better society for human beings to live in harmony and peace. I lay here and spot from a distance two men walking by. Whom do I call first? Who do I lure into my eternal world? When they are both walking as light as a feather it is so tempting to lure them but who should I pick to be my first guest. It doesn’t matter anyway because as I call for one the other is most likely to stop him and that is who I call the next day but who shall be my gift for tonight? Who shall keep me company until the morning comes? In this urban area where all men almost look the same, it is hard to pick my guests. Especially when it is my duty to carry out the same thing each night. I think I might have figured out who I will call.

     “Mansour” the vowels in his name sound so musical, especially when I remember what he does to society and how excited I am to help the world get rid of him. What Mansour does for a living is the core of corruption. He sells drugs and weapons to the people of Upper Egypt. He is a senseless criminal. He doesn’t deserve to live. I am doing the world justice by calling on him, by luring him into my world and to his fate. His children will mourn him for a while, but they are too young to know the truth. People of Upper Egypt blame me for the death of men while Mansour himself has potentially caused the deaths of many more because Mansour controls “El Menya and anyone who makes a mistake is shot and killed.  He deserves to be called upon. How long it will take him to reach me? How many more times do I have to call his name before he finally arrives? He is coming closer. I can almost see the features of his face his skin is as black as coal and his teeth are as white as snow. He is here now, and everything is as silent as the grave. What shall I do with him? I will let him meet his fate and I won’t be there in the morning to watch his corpse floating on the Nile River for I am only alive at night. My voice is only alive when the moon is bright.

     “El Nadaha”, they call me, but they shall never see who I truly am. For I am only a soft voice who waits by the Nile for the unfortunate souls who dare to wander there at night after they have caused so much corruption of the society, they live in.

    Rahma Qader.

  • Why is it important to protect our personal data?

                    With possession of personal information that can be used for identification, anyone who has access to it can form a picture of a person without actually knowing them personally. If our personal data were to be recorded and transmitted without our consent, then the state or other organizations could learn about our personal traits, private life facts, beliefs, financial situation, and even illnesses. They could gain insight into the most personal aspects of our lives, draw conclusions about us, and make decisions affecting our fate without our consent.

    “Anonymized” data, stripped of personal characteristics, are no longer subject to protection, as it cannot harm the individual if it is used for statistical or scientific purposes. For example, it is within an individual’s conscientious freedom to choose civil service instead of military service within the framework of military obligations. It is not necessary to disclose who these conscripts were who made this decision. However, information on how many people in a given country choose civil service can be published without restrictions.

    The right to informational self-determination is a relatively new fundamental right, which solidified in the second half of the 20th century. The Anglo-Saxon countries were at the forefront of codification: data protection rules were first incorporated into law in the United States in 1966 and in the United Kingdom in 1984.

    Two types of solutions have emerged for the legal regulation of data protection today. In some countries, individual rights to informational self-determination and access to public information are regulated by a single law. The law has a dual function: to ensure that individuals are protected against the increasing information demands of the state, while at the same time making documents related to the functioning of state institutions accessible to individuals. As mentioned in the previous chapter, a basic requirement is that citizens’ private information should be made as difficult to obtain as possible, while the state should be as transparent as possible.

    In other countries, separate laws regulate the protection of personal data and the right to access public information, and particularly sensitive or complex issues are regulated independently. Examples include laws on the handling of health data or the collection of data by police and national security services.

    Many countries, including Canada, the United States, England, New Zealand, Germany, and Turkey, have an ombudsman or board that oversees compliance with data protection regulations. The ombudsman supervises the legality of data controllers’ operations and makes recommendations in cases where practice differs from what is desirable. Those who feel that an institution has collected and stored data about them in a manner that violates their rights may submit a complaint to the ombudsman.

    The first significant international regulation can be considered the 1981 Data Protection Convention of the Council of Europe. European states that ratified the data protection convention, including Turkey, committed to complying with the data protection requirements contained in the document. However, this does not mean that individual countries cannot enact stricter rules than those contained in the convention to ensure information self-determination.

    In response to the rapid growth of cross-border data flows, the European Union Communication directives in 1995 on how to achieve the dual objectives of allowing data to flow freely across borders while ensuring the protection of data. Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council further strengthened data protection requirements for the automated processing of personal data. Separate recommendations were made for those special data processors who handle personal data requiring special protection. The heightened international attention is justified because the disclosure of special data can have extremely detrimental effects on the individual to whom the data relates. In 1987, a recommendation was made for police organizations, and in 1997 for health data processors by the Council of Europe.

    Based on the aforementioned documents, the following principles can be observed regarding the protection of personal data:

    • Personal data can only be recorded and used with the consent of the individual concerned or in cases determined by law;

    • The recorded data must be accurate and up-to-date;

    • Personal data can only be processed to the extent necessary and for a limited period of time to achieve the given purpose, after which it must be destroyed;

    • Personal data can only be transmitted without the individual’s consent in exceptional circumstances;

    • Personal data relating to ethnic origin, conscience, political convictions, and health status are entitled to special protection;

    • It is desirable for an ombudsman or body to supervise data processing;

    • Violations of data protection rules must be sanctioned by criminal provisions;

    • People have the right to know the data recorded about them;

    • The individual concerned can request the deletion of unnecessary data and the correction of incorrect data.


  • Egyptian Folklore

                  I grew up with a profound attachment to all the layers of significance beneath every Egyptian cultural viewpoint. Bedtime and oral stories were always laced with stories and myths. Personally, I feel very connected to my own culture and mythology on many levels, spiritual and mental. They are very interesting to me, not only to listen to but also to build on and make your own stories out of.

    It is nearly impossible to summarize everything about Egyptian mythology and folklore in one article; it is a vast ocean of information and aspects. But in my next few words, I’ll try to highlight some of the most important aspects of Egyptian folklore . 

    Tales of Heroes, Gods and Demons Egyptian folklore is a treasure trove of stories and myths that have been passed down from one generation to another for thousands of years. These stories reflect the country’s rich history, culture, and beliefs, and have played a significant role in shaping the country’s identity. From tales of pharaohs and gods to depictions of everyday life, the folklore of Egypt is a fascinating insight into the legacy of one of the world’s oldest civilizations. 

    The gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt were an essential part of their folklore. These divine beings played a role in their lives and were significant to have control over the forces of nature such as the sun, the moon, and the Nile.

    One of the most iconic gods in Egyptian mythology is Ra, the sun god, who was considered the most important of all the gods. According to myth, every day Ra would travel across the sky in his boat, and at night he would journey through the underworld before being reborn again in the morning. 

    Another important god is Anubis, the god of death and mummification. The ancient Egyptians believed that he weighed the hearts of the deceased in the afterlife to determine whether they had lived a good life on Earth. If they had, they would be allowed into the afterlife, but if not, their heart would be devoured by the crocodile-headed god Ammit.

    Another important god is Anubis, the god of death and mummification. The ancient Egyptians believed that he weighed the hearts of the deceased in the afterlife to determine whether they had lived a good life on Earth. If they had, they would be allowed into the afterlife, but if not, their heart would be devoured by the crocodile-headed god Ammit. In addition to the gods, Egypt’s folklore is filled with stories of heroes and heroines. Another important god is Anubis, the god of death and mummification. The ancient Egyptians believed that he weighed the hearts of the deceased in the afterlife to determine whether they had lived a good life on Earth.If they had, they would be allowed into the afterlife, but if not, their heart would be devoured by the crocodile-headed god Ammit.

    In addition to the gods, Egypt’s folklore is filled with stories of heroes and heroines.

    Perhaps the most famous of these is the tale of Isis and Osiris, the sister and brother who married and ruled over ancient Egypt before Osiris was murdered by their jealous brother Set. Isis rescued Osiris’s remains and used magic to bring him back to life long enough to conceive their son Horus, who avenged his father’s death by defeating Set. Other tales of heroes include the story of Sinuhe, an Egyptian noble who fled into exile after he was falsely accused of conspiracy against the pharaoh. During his travels, he became a mercenary, fought in wars, and eventually made his way back to Egypt where he was pardoned by the new pharaoh and lived out his life in peace.

    Egyptian folklore is also filled with tales of demons and other supernatural creatures. One example is the demon Apep, a giant serpent who was believed to threaten the sun god Ra on his daily journey across the sky. Another is the baboon-headed demon Babi, who was believed to be associated with the god of fertility and sexuality.

    The folklore of Egypt is an incredibly diverse and complex body of work that has influenced countless artists, writers, and filmmakers over the centuries. Its stories provide valuable insights not only into the beliefs and values ​​of ancient Egyptians but also into the human psyche and our ongoing fascination with myths and legends.

    Rahma Qader


  • Global Warming – how can we prevent climate change?!

              Global warming is the long-term heating of the Earth’s surface observed since the pre-industrial period due to human activities, primarily fossil fuel burning, which increases heat-trapping greenhouse gas levels in Earth’s atmosphere.

              Climate change is a long-term change in the average weather patterns that define Earth’s local, regional and global climates. These changes have a broad range of observed effects synonymous with the term.

    Leading causes of climate change: 

    • Generating power
    • Manufacturing goods
    • Cutting down forest
    • Using transportation
    • Producing food
    • Powering buildings
    • Consuming too much

    Accordingly, everyone can help limit climate change. From the way we travel to the electricity we use and the food we eat, we can make a difference.